Proteins are a large group of nitrogenous compounds with high molecular weight, which play an important role in the physiological process and are essential for living organisms. They are composed of one or more chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds in a particular order to establish the base sequence of nucleotide in the DNA coding for the protein. Each protein has a precise function and is essential for the regulation, functioning, and structure of the body’s cell tissue and organ. Protein engineering is the process of developing valuable proteins or enzyme with a specific function. It is based on the use of the recombinant DNA technology for changing the amino acid sequence.
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It is used to produce enzyme in large quantities, for producing biological compounds, and to create a superior enzyme to catalyze the production of high value specific chemicals. Currently, various protein engineering methods are owing to the rapid development in biological science. Some of the methods used for protein engineering are rational design, site directed mutagenesis, random mutagenesis, homology modeling, cell surface display technology, molecular dynamics, and DNA shuffling technology. Mutagenesis and selection are effectively utilized for improving a specific property of an enzyme. Meanwhile, the rational design approach is the most classical method in the protein engineering market. It involves site-directed mutagenesis of the protein and allows introduction of specific amino acid into a target gene.
Protein engineering has a variety of applications ranging from biocatalysis in food application, to medical, nano-biotechnology, and environmental applications. It is used in the detergent industry, food industry, biopolymer production, applications involving redox proteins and enzymes, medical applications, environmental applications, and nano-biotechnology applications. In medical applications, protein engineering is used for cancer treatment studies.
North America dominates the global market for protein engineering due to the rising prevalence of lifestyle associated diseases and increasing adoption of protein based drugs in the region. Asia Pacific is expected to exhibit high growth rates in the next five years in the global protein engineering market, with China and India being the fastest-growing markets in Asia Pacific. The key driving forces for the protein engineering market in developing countries are the large pool of patients, increasing health care awareness, increasing health care expenditure, rising government initiatives, and rising funding for drug discovery in the region.
Increasing prevalence of lifestyle associated diseases, growing adoption of protein based drugs over non protein based drugs, rising funding for protein engineering, reduction in overall timeline and cost for drug discovery, increase in health care expenditure, and growing health care awareness are some of the key factors that are driving the growth of the global protein engineering market. However, high maintenance, high cost of tools and instruments used in protein engineering, need for qualified researchers and essential training, which increases the cost of the process, and lack of skilled labor act as major restraints for the growth of the global protein engineering market.
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Top selling biologics drugs going off patent in the near future, and protein therapy acting as an alternative to gene therapy are the two major factors that are expected to create opportunities for the global protein engineering market.